Mayo Clinic Health Library

Reading food labels: Tips if you have diabetes

Updated: 06-25-2013

When you have diabetes, your diet is a vital part of your treatment plan. Of course you know what you're eating — a turkey sandwich, a glass of skim milk, a sugar-free fudge pop. But do you pay attention to the details, such as calories, total carbohydrates, fiber, fat, salt and sugar? Reading food labels can help you make the best choices.

Start with the list of ingredients

When you're looking at food labels, start with the list of ingredients.

  • Keep an eye out for heart-healthy ingredients, such as whole-wheat flour, soy and oats. Monounsaturated fats — such as olive, canola or peanut oils — promote heart health, too.
  • Avoid unhealthy ingredients, such as hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oil.

Keep in mind that ingredients are listed in descending order by weight. The main (heaviest) ingredient is listed first, followed by other ingredients used in decreasing amounts.

Consider carbs in context

If your meal plan is based on carbohydrate counting, food labels become an essential tool.

  • Look at total carbohydrates, not just sugar. Evaluate the grams of total carbohydrates — which includes sugar, complex carbohydrate and fiber — rather than only the grams of sugar. If you zero in on sugar content, you could miss out on nutritious foods naturally high in sugar, such as fruit and milk. And you might overdo foods with no natural or added sugar, but plenty of carbohydrates, such as certain cereals and grains.
  • Don't miss out on high-fiber foods. Pay special attention to high-fiber foods. Look for foods with 3 or more grams of fiber. When counting carbohydrates, if a food has more than 5 grams of fiber, you can subtract half of the total grams of fiber from the total carbohydrates to get your count. High fiber foods help reduce the absorption of more-simple carbohydrates.

Put sugar-free products in their place

  • Sugar-free doesn't mean carbohydrate-free. Sugar-free foods may play a role in your diabetes diet, but remember to consider carbohydrates, as well. A sugar-free label means that one serving has less than 0.5 gram of sugar. When you're choosing between standard products and their sugar-free counterparts, compare the food labels. If the sugar-free product has noticeably fewer carbohydrates, the sugar-free product might be the better choice. But if there's little difference in carbohydrate grams between the two foods, let taste — or price — be your guide.
  • No sugar added, but not necessarily no carbohydrates. The same caveat applies to products sporting a "no sugar added" label. Although these foods don't contain high-sugar ingredients and no sugar is added during processing or packaging, foods without added sugar may still be high in carbohydrates.
  • Sugar alcohols contain carbohydrates and calories, too. Likewise, products that contain sugar alcohols — such as sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol — aren't necessarily low in carbohydrates or calories.

Beware of fat-free products

Per gram, fat has more than twice the calories of carbohydrate or protein. If you're trying to lose weight, fat-free foods might sound like just the ticket. But don't be fooled by "fat-free" food labels.

  • Fat-free can still have carbohydrates. Fat-free foods can have more carbohydrates and contain nearly as many calories as the standard version of the same food. The lesson? You guessed it. Compare food labels for fat-free and standard products carefully before you make a decision.

And remember that the amount of total fat listed on a food label doesn't tell the whole story. Look for a breakdown of types of fat.

  • Choose healthier fats. Although still high in calories, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can help lower your cholesterol and protect your heart.
  • Limit unhealthy fats. Saturated and trans fats raise your cholesterol and increase your risk of heart disease.

Know what counts as a free food

Just as food labels can help you rule out certain foods, food labels can also serve as your guide to free foods. A free food is one with:

  • Fewer than 20 calories a serving
  • Less than 5 grams of carbohydrate a serving

You can include some free foods in your diet as often as you'd like. Examples include:

  • Diet sodas
  • Sugar-free flavored gelatin
  • Sugar-free gum

Do the math

  • Pay attention to serving sizes. The serving sizes listed on food labels may be different from the serving sizes in your meal plan. If you eat twice the serving size listed on the label, you also double the calories, fat, carbohydrate, protein, sodium and the other contents.
  • Consider your daily calorie goals. The same goes for the Daily Value listed on food labels. This percentage, which is based on a 2,000-calorie-a-day diet, helps you gauge how much of a specific nutrient one serving of food contains compared with recommendations for the whole day. Five percent or less is low; 20 percent or more is high. Look for foods with fats, cholesterol and sodium on the low end of Daily Value; keep fiber, vitamins and minerals on the high end. If your doctor or registered dietitian recommends more or less than 2,000 calories a day, you may need to adjust the percentage accordingly — or simply use the percentage as a general frame of reference.

The bottom line

What you eat is up to you. Whether you're trying to reduce the amount of fat, cholesterol and sodium in your diet or boost the amount of fiber, whole grains and other healthy nutrients, use food labels to help meet your healthy-eating goals.

Site view: at a glance