No, your vision generally doesn't deteriorate after cataract surgery unless other problems arise, such as macular degeneration or glaucoma.
In cataract surgery, the eye doctor (ophthalmologist) removes the clouded lens from your eye and replaces it with a clear, artificial lens. This lens is very durable and should last for the rest of your life.
Sometimes the natural capsule that holds the artificial lens becomes cloudy after cataract surgery. It may even seem as if the cataract is returning. This can affect your vision. An eye doctor can use a laser to make an opening in the center of the cloudy lens capsule. This procedure is a quick, outpatient procedure that can restore the vision.
Most people use glasses, at least some of the time, after cataract surgery. After your eyes have healed from surgery, your doctor may recommend prescription eyeglasses.