A pinched nerve occurs when too much pressure is applied to a nerve by surrounding tissues, such as bones, cartilage, muscles or tendons. This pressure can cause pain, tingling, numbness or weakness.
A pinched nerve can occur in many areas of the body. For example, a herniated disk in the lower spine may put pressure on a nerve root. This may cause pain that radiates down the back of the leg. A pinched nerve in the wrist can lead to pain and numbness in the hand and fingers, known as carpal tunnel syndrome.
With rest and other conservative treatments, most people recover from a pinched nerve within a few days or weeks. Sometimes, surgery is needed to relieve pain from a pinched nerve.
Pinched nerve symptoms include:
- Numbness or less feeling in the area supplied by the nerve.
- Sharp, aching or burning pain, which may radiate outward.
- Tingling, or a pins and needles feeling.
- Muscle weakness in the affected area.
- Often feeling as if a foot or hand has "fallen asleep."
Symptoms related to a pinched nerve may be worse when you're sleeping.
When to see a doctor
Self-care measures such as rest and pain relievers available without a prescription may resolve the symptoms of a pinched nerve. See your healthcare professional if symptoms last for several days and don't respond to self-care.
A pinched nerve occurs when too much pressure, known as compression, is applied to a nerve by surrounding tissues.
This tissue might be bone or cartilage, such as when a herniated spinal disk compresses a nerve root. Or muscle or tendons may compress a nerve.
In carpal tunnel syndrome, a variety of tissues may be responsible for compression of the carpal tunnel's median nerve in the wrist. It can be caused by swollen tendon sheaths within the tunnel, enlarged bone that narrows the tunnel, or a thickened and degenerated ligament.
A number of conditions may cause tissue to compress a nerve or nerves, including:
- Rheumatoid or wrist arthritis.
- Stress from repetitive work.
- Hobbies or sports.
If a nerve is pinched for only a short time, there's often no permanent damage. Once the pressure is relieved, nerve function returns. However, if the pressure continues, chronic pain and permanent nerve damage can occur.
The following factors may increase your risk of experiencing a pinched nerve:
- Sex assigned at birth. Women are more likely to develop carpal tunnel syndrome, possibly due to having smaller carpal tunnels.
- Bone spurs. Trauma or a condition that causes bone thickening, such as osteoarthritis, can cause bone spurs. Bone spurs can stiffen the spine as well as narrow the space where your nerves travel, pinching nerves.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammation caused by rheumatoid arthritis can compress nerves, especially in your joints.
- Thyroid disease. People with thyroid disease are at higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Other risk factors include:
- Diabetes. People with diabetes are at higher risk of nerve compression.
- Overuse. Jobs or hobbies that require repetitive hand, wrist or shoulder movements increase the risk of a pinched nerve. This includes assembly line work.
- Obesity. Excess weight can add pressure to nerves.
- Pregnancy. Water and weight gain associated with pregnancy can swell nerve pathways, compressing your nerves.
- Prolonged bed rest. Long periods of lying down can increase the risk of nerve compression.
The following measures may help you prevent a pinched nerve:
- Maintain good positioning. Don't cross your legs or lie in any one position for a long time.
- Incorporate strength and flexibility exercises into your regular exercise program.
- Limit repetitive activities and take frequent breaks when engaging in these activities.
- Maintain a healthy weight to put less pressure on nerves.
To diagnose a pinched nerve, your healthcare professional asks about your symptoms and conducts a physical exam.
If your healthcare professional suspects a pinched nerve, you may need some tests. These tests may include:
- Blood tests. You may need tests to measure your fasting blood glucose or thyroid levels.
- Spinal tap, also known as a lumbar puncture. This test collects a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the area surrounding your spinal cord. The CSF may be sent to a lab and examined for signs of inflammation or infection.
- X-rays. These images show how the bones are positioned. They can reveal if there is narrowing or damage that could cause a pinched nerve.
- Nerve conduction study. This test measures electrical nerve impulses and functioning in your muscles and nerves through electrodes placed on your skin. The study measures the electrical impulses in your nerve signals when a small current passes through the nerve. Test results can show whether you have a damaged nerve.
- Electromyography (EMG). During an EMG, a needle electrode is inserted through your skin into various muscles. The test evaluates the electrical activity of your muscles when they contract and when they're at rest. Test results tell your healthcare professional if there is damage to the nerves leading to the muscles.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This test uses a powerful magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed views of your body in multiple planes. This test may be used if your healthcare professional suspects you have nerve root compression.
- High-resolution ultrasound. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of structures within the body. It's helpful for diagnosing nerve compression syndromes, such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
The most frequently recommended treatment for a pinched nerve is rest for the affected area. Stop any activities that cause the compression or make symptoms worse.
Depending on the location of the pinched nerve, you may need a splint, collar or brace to immobilize the area. If you have carpal tunnel syndrome, you may need to wear a splint during the day and at night. The wrists flex and extend often during sleep.
A physical therapist can teach you exercises that strengthen and stretch the muscles to relieve pressure on the nerve. The physical therapist also may recommend that you modify activities that aggravate the nerve.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve), can help relieve pain. Anti-seizure medicines such as gabapentin (Neurontin, Horizant, Gralise) may help nerve-related pain. Tricyclic medicines such as nortriptyline (Pamelor) and amitriptyline also may be used.
Corticosteroids, given by mouth or by injection, may help minimize pain and inflammation.
If symptoms don't improve after several weeks to a few months of conservative treatments, you may need surgery. Surgery can take pressure off the nerve. The type of surgery varies depending on the location of the pinched nerve.
Surgery may involve removing bone spurs or a part of a herniated disk in the spine. For carpal tunnel syndrome, surgery involves cutting the carpal ligament to allow more room for the nerve to pass through the wrist.
Preparing for an appointment
You're likely to first see your healthcare professional. Because there's often a lot to discuss and time may be limited, it's a good idea to prepare for your appointment. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect.
What you can do
- Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, ask if there's anything you need to do in advance. You might ask if you need to restrict your diet or wear loosefitting clothes if you need an imaging exam.
- Write down any symptoms you're experiencing. Include any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
- Make a list of all medicines, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.
- Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Sometimes it can be hard to remember all of the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
- Write down questions to ask during the appointment.
Preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time during your appointment. For a suspected pinched nerve, some basic questions to ask include:
- What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?
- What kinds of tests do I need?
- Is my condition likely temporary or long lasting?
- What treatment do you recommend?
- What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting?
- I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?
- Are there any activity restrictions that I need to follow?
- Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend visiting?
In addition to the questions that you've prepared, don't hesitate to ask others during your appointment.
Preparing for an appointment
What to expect from your doctor
Your healthcare professional is likely to ask you a number of questions. They may include:
- What are your symptoms? Do you feel pain, numbness, tingling or weakness?
- Where, specifically, are you feeling these symptoms?
- How long have you been experiencing these symptoms?
- Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
- Is there an activity or a position that triggers your symptoms?
- Is there an activity or a position that relieves your symptoms?
- Do you have a job or hobby that requires you to make repetitive motions?