Traveler's diarrhea is a digestive tract disorder that commonly causes loose stools and stomach cramps. It's caused by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Fortunately, traveler's diarrhea usually isn't serious in most people — it's just unpleasant.
When you visit a place where the climate or sanitary practices are different from yours at home, you have an increased risk of developing traveler's diarrhea.
To reduce your risk of traveler's diarrhea, be careful about what you eat and drink while traveling. If you do develop traveler's diarrhea, chances are it will go away without treatment. However, it's a good idea to have doctor-approved medicines with you when you travel to high-risk areas. This way, you'll be prepared in case diarrhea gets severe or won't go away.
Traveler's diarrhea may begin suddenly during your trip or shortly after you return home. Most people improve within 1 to 2 days without treatment and recover completely within a week. However, you can have multiple episodes of traveler's diarrhea during one trip.
The most common symptoms of traveler's diarrhea are:
- Suddenly passing three or more looser watery stools a day.
- An urgent need to pass stool.
- Stomach cramps.
Sometimes, people experience moderate to severe dehydration, ongoing vomiting, a high fever, bloody stools, or severe pain in the belly or rectum. If you or your child experiences any of these symptoms or if the diarrhea lasts longer than a few days, it's time to see a health care professional.
When to see a doctor
Traveler's diarrhea usually goes away on its own within several days. Symptoms may last longer and be more severe if it's caused by certain bacteria or parasites. In such cases, you may need prescription medicines to help you get better.
If you're an adult, see your doctor if:
- Your diarrhea lasts beyond two days.
- You become dehydrated.
- You have severe stomach or rectal pain.
- You have bloody or black stools.
- You have a fever above 102 F (39 C).
While traveling internationally, a local embassy or consulate may be able to help you find a well-regarded medical professional who speaks your language.
Be especially cautious with children because traveler's diarrhea can cause severe dehydration in a short time. Call a doctor if your child is sick and has any of the following symptoms:
- Ongoing vomiting.
- A fever of 102 F (39 C) or more.
- Bloody stools or severe diarrhea.
- Dry mouth or crying without tears.
- Signs of being unusually sleepy, drowsy or unresponsive.
- Decreased volume of urine, including fewer wet diapers in infants.
It's possible that traveler's diarrhea may stem from the stress of traveling or a change in diet. But usually infectious agents — such as bacteria, viruses or parasites — are to blame. You typically develop traveler's diarrhea after ingesting food or water contaminated with organisms from feces.
So why aren't natives of high-risk countries affected in the same way? Often their bodies have become used to the bacteria and have developed immunity to them.
Each year millions of international travelers experience traveler's diarrhea. High-risk destinations for traveler's diarrhea include areas of:
- Central America.
- South America.
- South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Traveling to Eastern Europe, South Africa, Central and East Asia, the Middle East, and a few Caribbean islands also poses some risk. However, your risk of traveler's diarrhea is generally low in Northern and Western Europe, Japan, Canada, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States.
Your chances of getting traveler's diarrhea are mostly determined by your destination. But certain groups of people have a greater risk of developing the condition. These include:
- Young adults. The condition is slightly more common in young adult tourists. Though the reasons why aren't clear, it's possible that young adults lack acquired immunity. They may also be more adventurous than older people in their travels and dietary choices, or they may be less careful about avoiding contaminated foods.
- People with weakened immune systems. A weakened immune system due to an underlying illness or immune-suppressing medicines such as corticosteroids increases risk of infections.
- People with diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, or severe kidney, liver or heart disease. These conditions can leave you more prone to infection or increase your risk of a more-severe infection.
- People who take acid blockers or antacids. Acid in the stomach tends to destroy organisms, so a reduction in stomach acid may leave more opportunity for bacterial survival.
- People who travel during certain seasons. The risk of traveler's diarrhea varies by season in certain parts of the world. For example, risk is highest in South Asia during the hot months just before the monsoons.
Because you lose vital fluids, salts and minerals during a bout with traveler's diarrhea, you may become dehydrated, especially during the summer months. Dehydration is especially dangerous for children, older adults and people with weakened immune systems.
Dehydration caused by diarrhea can cause serious complications, including organ damage, shock or coma. Symptoms of dehydration include a very dry mouth, intense thirst, little or no urination, dizziness, or extreme weakness.
Watch what you eat
The general rule of thumb when traveling to another country is this: Boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it. But it's still possible to get sick even if you follow these rules.
Other tips that may help decrease your risk of getting sick include:
- Don't consume food from street vendors.
- Don't consume unpasteurized milk and dairy products, including ice cream.
- Don't eat raw or undercooked meat, fish and shellfish.
- Don't eat moist food at room temperature, such as sauces and buffet offerings.
- Eat foods that are well cooked and served hot.
- Stick to fruits and vegetables that you can peel yourself, such as bananas, oranges and avocados. Stay away from salads and from fruits you can't peel, such as grapes and berries.
- Be aware that alcohol in a drink won't keep you safe from contaminated water or ice.
Don't drink the water
When visiting high-risk areas, keep the following tips in mind:
- Don't drink unsterilized water — from tap, well or stream. If you need to consume local water, boil it for three minutes. Let the water cool naturally and store it in a clean covered container.
- Don't use locally made ice cubes or drink mixed fruit juices made with tap water.
- Beware of sliced fruit that may have been washed in contaminated water.
- Use bottled or boiled water to mix baby formula.
- Order hot beverages, such as coffee or tea, and make sure they're steaming hot.
- Feel free to drink canned or bottled drinks in their original containers — including water, carbonated beverages, beer or wine — as long as you break the seals on the containers yourself. Wipe off any can or bottle before drinking or pouring.
- Use bottled water to brush your teeth.
- Don't swim in water that may be contaminated.
- Keep your mouth closed while showering.
If it's not possible to buy bottled water or boil your water, bring some means to purify water. Consider a water-filter pump with a microstrainer filter that can filter out small microorganisms.
You also can chemically disinfect water with iodine or chlorine. Iodine tends to be more effective, but is best reserved for short trips, as too much iodine can be harmful to your system. You can purchase water-disinfecting tablets containing chlorine, iodine tablets or crystals, or other disinfecting agents at camping stores and pharmacies. Be sure to follow the directions on the package.
Follow additional tips
Here are other ways to reduce your risk of traveler's diarrhea:
- Make sure dishes and utensils are clean and dry before using them.
- Wash your hands often and always before eating. If washing isn't possible, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol to clean your hands before eating.
- Seek out food items that require little handling in preparation.
- Keep children from putting things — including their dirty hands — in their mouths. If possible, keep infants from crawling on dirty floors.
- Tie a colored ribbon around the bathroom faucet to remind you not to drink — or brush your teeth with — tap water.
Other preventive measures
Public health experts generally don't recommend taking antibiotics to prevent traveler's diarrhea, because doing so can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Antibiotics provide no protection against viruses and parasites, but they can give travelers a false sense of security about the risks of consuming local foods and beverages. They also can cause unpleasant side effects, such as skin rashes, skin reactions to the sun and vaginal yeast infections.
As a preventive measure, some doctors suggest taking bismuth subsalicylate, which has been shown to decrease the likelihood of diarrhea. However, don't take this medicine for longer than three weeks, and don't take it at all if you're pregnant or allergic to aspirin. Talk to your doctor before taking bismuth subsalicylate if you're taking certain medicines, such as anticoagulants.
Common harmless side effects of bismuth subsalicylate include a black-colored tongue and dark stools. In some cases, it can cause constipation, nausea and, rarely, ringing in your ears, called tinnitus.
Traveler's diarrhea may get better without any treatment. But while you're waiting, it's important to try to stay hydrated with safe liquids, such as bottled water or water with electrolytes such as an oral rehydration solution (see below). If you don't seem to be improving quickly, several medicines are available to help relieve symptoms.
Anti-motility agents. These medicines — which include loperamide and drugs containing diphenoxylate — provide prompt but temporary relief by:
- Reducing muscle spasms in your gastrointestinal tract.
- Slowing the transit time through your digestive system.
- Allowing more time for absorption.
Anti-motility medicines aren't recommended for infants or people with a fever or bloody diarrhea. This is because they can delay clearance of the infectious organisms and make the illness worse.
Also, stop using anti-motility agents after 48 hours if you have stomach pain or if your symptoms worsen and your diarrhea continues. In such cases, see a doctor. You may need blood or stool tests and treatment with an antibiotic.
- Bismuth subsalicylate. This nonprescription medicine can decrease the frequency of your stools and shorten the length of your illness. However, it isn't recommended for children, pregnant women or people who are allergic to aspirin.
- Antibiotics. If you have more than four loose stools a day or severe symptoms, including a fever or blood, pus or mucus in your stools, a doctor may prescribe a course of antibiotics.
Before you leave for your trip, talk to your doctor about taking a prescription with you in case you get a serious bout of traveler's diarrhea.
Dehydration is the most likely complication of traveler's diarrhea, so it's important to try to stay well hydrated.
An oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution is the best way to replace lost fluids. These solutions contain water and salts in specific proportions to replenish both fluids and electrolytes. They also contain glucose to enhance absorption in the intestinal tract.
Bottled oral rehydration products are available in drugstores in developed areas, and many pharmacies carry their own brands. You can find packets of powdered oral rehydration salts, labeled World Health Organization (WHO)-ORS, at stores, pharmacies and health agencies in most countries. Reconstitute the powder in bottled or boiled water according to the directions on the package.
If these products are unavailable, you can prepare your own rehydrating solution in an emergency by mixing together:
- 3/4 teaspoon table salt.
- 2 tablespoons sugar.
- 1 quart uncontaminated bottled or boiled water.
- Sugar-free flavor powder, such as Crystal Light (optional).
You or your child can drink the solution in small amounts throughout the day as a supplement to solid foods or formula, as long as dehydration persists. Small amounts reduce the likelihood of vomiting. Breastfed infants also can drink the solution but should continue nursing on demand.
If dehydration symptoms — such as dry mouth, intense thirst, little or no urination, dizziness, or extreme weakness — don't improve, seek medical care right away. Oral rehydration solutions are intended only for urgent short-term use.
Lifestyle and home remedies
If you do get traveler's diarrhea, avoid caffeine, alcohol and dairy products, which may worsen symptoms or increase fluid loss. But keep drinking fluids.
Drink canned fruit juices, weak tea, clear soup, decaffeinated soda or sports drinks to replace lost fluids and minerals. Later, as your diarrhea improves, try a diet of easy-to-eat complex carbohydrates, such as salted crackers, bland cereals, bananas, applesauce, dry toast or bread, rice, potatoes, and plain noodles.
You may return to your normal diet as you feel you can tolerate it. Add dairy products, caffeinated beverages and high-fiber foods cautiously.
Preparing for an appointment
Call a doctor if you have diarrhea that is severe, lasts more than a few days or is bloody. If you are traveling, call an embassy or consulate for help locating a doctor. Other signs that you should seek medical attention include:
- A fever of 102 F (39 C) or higher.
- Ongoing vomiting.
- Signs of severe dehydration, including a dry mouth, muscle cramps, decreased urine output, dizziness or fatigue.
If you have diarrhea and you've just returned home from a trip abroad, share that trip information with your doctor when you call to make an appointment.
Here's some information to help you get ready, and what to expect.
Information to gather in advance
- Pre-appointment instructions. At the time you make your appointment, ask whether there are immediate self-care steps you can take to help recover more quickly.
- Symptom history. Write down any symptoms you've been experiencing and for how long.
- Medical history. Make a list of your key medical information, including other conditions for which you're being treated and any medicines, vitamins or supplements you're currently taking.
- Questions to ask your health care professional. Write down your questions in advance so that you can make the most of your time.
The list below suggests questions to ask about traveler's diarrhea.
- What's causing my symptoms?
- Are there any other possible causes for my symptoms?
- What kinds of tests do I need?
- What treatment approach do you recommend?
- Are there any possible side effects from the medicines I'll be taking?
- Will my diarrhea or its treatment affect the other health conditions I have? How can I best manage these conditions together?
- What is the safest way for me to rehydrate?
- Do I need to follow any dietary restrictions and for how long?
- How soon after I begin treatment will I start to feel better?
- How long do you expect a full recovery to take?
- Am I contagious? How can I reduce my risk of passing my illness to others?
- What can I do to reduce my risk of this condition in the future?
In addition to the questions that you've prepared, don't hesitate to ask questions as they occur to you during your appointment.
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over points you want to talk about in-depth. Your doctor may ask:
- What are your symptoms?
- When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?
- Have you traveled recently?
- Where did you travel?
- Have you taken any antibiotics recently?
- Have your symptoms been getting better or worse?
- Have you noticed any blood in your stools?
- Have you experienced symptoms of dehydration, such as muscle cramps or fatigue?
- What treatments have you tried so far, if any?
- Have you been able to keep down any food or liquid?
- Are you pregnant?
- Are you being treated for any other medical conditions?